Coup d’ etat, happens when there is a sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a state establishment like the military, in order to replace it with another body from the military or a chosen civilian.
Most recently, the coup d’etat on Turkey’s president, Tayipp Erdogen was unsuccessful. It happens to be one of the failed coup attempts in history. Therefore, here are the seven most recent coup attempts in history;
On 15–16 July, 2016, an unsuccessful coup d’état was staged against Turkish President, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, and his government by a faction within the Turkish Armed Forces. In a televised statement the group responsible for the coup named themselves the Turkish Peace Council. At least 290 people were killed and more than a thousand injured. In Ankara, the Turkish Parliament and the Presidential Palace were bombed. Shots were also heard near major airports in Ankara and Istanbul.The incumbent government rapidly declared the attempt a failure and began prosecuting those involved. The first official reaction came from Turkish Prime Minister Binali Yıldırım, who addressed the media one day later saying that the situation was “completely under control.” Mass arrests followed with at least 6,000 people being detained including at least 2,839 soldiers and 2,745 judges.
The recent crisis was triggered by the 16 September military coup that was launched by members of the Presidential Security Regiment (RSP) – former presidential guards – who dissolved all the institutions of the transitional government. The crisis ended on 23 September when transitional president, Michel Kafando, was reinstated. The first post-coup cabinet meeting was held two days later.While this marks the end of the military coup attempt, and heralds a gradual return to normal, various issues still have to be addressed. The international community has unanimously and strongly condemned the RSP’s interference in the transition process. To put an end to it, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) initiated a mediation process, which on 20 September resulted in a draft proposal to end the crisis.This proposal has, however, been strongly contested by Burkinabe parties. On 22 September, following an extraordinary summit in Abuja, Nigeria, ECOWAS heads of state called on the putschists to disarm and demanded a return to the transition process.
A military coup took place in Burundi when army leaders have attempted to overthrow President Pierre Nkurunziza, following weeks of protest at his decision to stand for the presidency for a third consecutive term. The decision had been denounced by many as unconstitutional, including US Secretary of State John Kerry.Burundi faced a tense stand-off, with rumours of coup leaders racing to seize the airport while the President prepares to fly in from crisis talks in neighbouring Tanzania.A top army official on Wednesday said he had deposed President Pierre Nkurunziza, who was in Tanzania at the time. Nkurunziza has dismissed the coup, but his current whereabouts are unknown.In a statement read to reporters at a military base, Major General Godefroid Niyombare announced he had ousted President Pierre Nkurunziza because the president’s bid for a third term violated the country’s constitution.The news was greeted with a mixed reaction, with some of Nkurunziza’s supporters locking themselves in buildings, according to reporters on the ground. His opponents however took to the streets of the capital Bujumbura in the thousands, cele brating his ouster.
The 2014 Gambian coup d’état attempt broke out during the night of 30 December 2014, when gunfire erupted in the Gambian capital of Banjul. At the time of the coup attempt President Yahya Jammeh was out of the country, with sources differing on whether he was inFrance or Dubai. Jammeh, who himself came to power in the 1994 Gambian coup d’état, has experienced several attempted coups against his regime, and sometimes accused the United Kingdom and United States of being behind said attempts. These tensions, divisions, and dissatisfaction within the Gambian military probably contributed to the most recent and past coup attempts against Jammeh. Unfortunately, internal military tensions are difficult to observe and quantify, especially in repressive states like the Gambia. Because these tensions are hard to quantify, they rarely factor into larger statistical forecasts, even though we have good reason to believe they contribute significantly to coup risks.
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The Thai military seized control of the country and detained at least 25 leading politicians in a culmination of months of maneuvering by the Bangkok establishment to sideline a populist movement that has won every national election since 2001.It was the second time in a decade that the army had overthrown an elected government, but there were signs that this takeover could be more severe and include sharp curbs on Thailand’s freewheeling news media.The coup was seen as a victory for the elites in Thailand who have grown disillusioned with popular democracy and have sought for years to diminish the electoral power of Thaksin Shinawatra, a former prime minister who commands support in the rural north. Unable to win elections, the opposition has instead called for an appointed prime minister, and pleaded with the military for months to step in.
Two coup d’état attempts have reported to have been made in 2014 by forces loyal to Maj. Gen. Khalifa Belqasim Haftar, the Commander of Libyan Ground Forces.Haftar reportedly took control of Libya’s main institutions on the morning of 14 February, before announcing on TV that he had suspended the General National Congress, the government and the Constitutional Declaration. Haftar claimed to be working in the name of the Libyan Republican Alliance, and also that forces loyal to him were in Tripoli, although he also stressed that he was not attempting a coup, but “a correction to the path of the revolution.”In spite of the declaration according to the Independent there appeared to be minimal military presence in Tripoli, a claim supported by Reuters. The US ambassador to Libya, Safira Deborah, also released a statement claiming there appeared to be no substance to Haftar’s declaration.Libyan Defence Minister Abdullah Al-Thinni, responding to the declaration, claimed that Haftar’s claim to forces loyal to him being in Tripoli was a lie, and also alleged that Haftar had no legitimacy. Thinni also reiterated that there was a warrant out for Haftar’s arrest on the grounds of plotting a coup d’état.Similarly Prime Minister Zeidan announced on public television that “We won’t let anyone hijack the Libyan revolution”.
Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi was effectively overthrown by the military in 2013. In a statement by Army chief General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, the armed forces explained that President Morsi had ignored calls of the people, and the armed forces for reconciliation, and that it was suspending the constitution and calling for early elections. Massive crowds gathered in Tahrir Square reveled in jubilation, while doubts remain over what the Muslim Brotherhood’s supporters, who back deposed President Morsi, will do.The move was preceded by the mass mobilization of armed vehicles around Cairo, particularly to areas of high concentration of people.General Fattah al-Sisi suggested President Morsi hadn’t paid attention to the military’s repeated attempts to get him to push for reconciliation. After meeting with opposition and religious leaders, the armed forces chose to remove Morsi from power.Finally, Egypt’s military chief urged the people to steer away from violence, but gave an ominous threat: we will stand up firmly and strictly to any act that stands against the rule of law, he said, referring to the Muslim Brotherhood and other pro-Morsi supporters who have gathered en masse.